.bashrc, .bash_profile, PATH on AMI

On a new Amazon Linux AMI installation, there is a useful ec2-user account configured. However, in order to make it more useful, there is a need to edit some .bashrc files, as well as create a new user for sftp and scp, as those will produce errors using login scripts that we will set for ... Read more

Minification, Compression, Expiration

A big part of speed is managing the browser cache. This usually means setting compression (gzip/deflate) and expirations of cached content. Compression takes place at the web server (generally after minification). Minification usually also combines files together, so that that there are fewer requests. Compression provides enormous advantages (much more than minification), however, minification done ... Read more

cron and crontabs on Amazon Linux AMI

Two words time-based automation: cron and crontabs (and other apps such as anacron) are needed for so many things on a server. Here is how to use cron and crontabs on Amazon Linux AMI. Install crontabs This will in addition install several dependencies, including cron. yum -y install crontabs chkconfig crond on service crond start ... Read more

PATH in Bash and Fish Shell

PATH can be a pain, but there are some basics: Syntax $PATH before or after (before) Is EXPORT needed, or not (not) Where is PATH set All apps+shells /etc/environment All shells ~/.profile or /etc/profile for all users (or a separate file under /etc/profile.d/ if using pacman) Bash shell ~/.bashrc (or ~/.bash_profile or ~/.bash_login) Fish shell ... Read more

Amazon Linux (CentOS), Apache, MySQL, PHP

Note: Amazon Linux AMI is essentially CentOS 6.x. Everything below works on CentOS as well. Preparation for Amazon LAMP The OpenVPN on Amazon Linux AMI is a good place to start in preping the L for the AMP part of the lamp stack. Lots of good stuff there. A followup is WordPress Multisite on Amazon ... Read more

Obfsproxy, Viscosity, OpenVPN

OpenVPN is great, and the OpenVPN command line client and the Viscosity GUI are also nice. However, all configurations need to be checked to ensure there is no information leakage. Secondly, the basic OpenVPN connection needs another layer of encryption and/or obfuscation, in order to interoperate with Internet firewalls and services that use deep packet ... Read more

Amazon Lightsail

Amazon Lightsail is a VPS services offered by Amazon that competes with the likes of Rackspace, DigitalOcean, Linode, etc. Note: As of mid 2018 AWS effectively halved its prices on Lightsail. This means there is a $3.50 USD/mo. option and the $40 option listed below (4gb ram/2 cpu/60gb ssd/4tb xfer) is actually only $20 now. ... Read more

ufw, firewalld, iptables on Amazon Linux

ufw is known as a Debian (and Ubuntu) firewall, which is disabled by default but easy to use. There are some GUI front-ends which make it popular for Linux on the desktop. Coming from a CentOS background (RHEL/Amazon Linux AMI), ufw is not as common (as, say firewalld, or simply iptables, to which both ufw ... Read more

AMI on EC2 vs. CentOS on Linode

What I learned in migrating from CentOS on Linode to Amazon AMI Linux on EC2. Note: Amazon Lightsail is probably a better comparison, but it is not available in the region we need it in, so EC2 is required for now. Update: Lightsail is now available in more regions. VPS Hosting and Operating System A ... Read more

OpenVPN on Amazon Linux

See also OpenVPN on ChromeOS and Android OpenVPN on an AWS EC2 T2.Nano Instance The T2.Nano instance is the smallest instance generally available for AWS EC2. As of 17-June-2017, the Nano includes the following resources: 512mb RAM 1 vcpu (30 credits + 3/hr, up to 72 credits) 1gb network out traffic Alternatively, a $5 USD ... Read more