APT -- Advanced Package Tool -- is all that is needed for most application installations when there are repositories which are regularly updated for packages of interest.
apt essentially makes irrelevant
apt-get so there is no reason for that redundancy any longer.
aptitude when dealing with packages that have upgrade/downgrade issues, as
aptitude provides better options for resolving issues. Use the
-f flag with
aptitude if the downgrading is out of hand.
If packages are kept back, simply install them directly with the
install command. Use
-f to force dependency upgrade.
Additional Note: Use
aptitude to install
.deb packages including the
packagename, as in:
sudo apt install -y ./packagename
stable, backports, testing, unstable repos
For a stable system, using
oldstable) and backports ensures stability. However, it doesn't deal with new hardware issues, or any kind of additional functionality, such as adding updated applications. For this, it is a matter of tracking down external packages, or using the
Currently, my main desktop is tied to an
oldstable release to keep an older printer working properly.
I do expect to be running Debian 10, and Debian 11 (aka stable and test)more or less parallel (backup desktop, server, primary desktop).
Upgrading the linux kernel using apt
sudo apt update -y sudo apt update -y -t stretch-backports
sudo apt upgrade -y --fix-missing sudo apt upgrade -y -t stretch-backports --fix-missing
sudo apt install -f
Upgrade Distributon (e.g, Debian Stable)
sudo apt dist-upgrade -y --fix-missing
Clean, Autoclean, Check, Autoremove
All these commands can be run from apt. In particular,
autoremove is a good option to keep things tidy.
sudo apt autoremove -y
Purge and Remove
To seriously remove things, do:
sudo apt --purge remove package-name
Sources are found in a few places:
sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list
Use this handy debian sources.list generator to get an updated sources.list including adding alternative repositories for popular applications such as nginx, php, syncthing.
- How do I install a .deb file via the command line?
- How can I run Debian stable but install some packages from testing?
- Chapter 2. Debian package management - packages from mixed source of archives
- How to install some packages from “unstable” Debian on a computer running “stable” Debian?
- Apt Configuration
Note: mixing repositories is not needed and generally discouraged (called franken-distributions). Stable for servers, testing for desktop.